Disponibilità : Esaurito
Numero articolo : 1532
Riferimento : DRF 70118
Tipo : Figurine complete
Nazionalità : Germania
Epoca : WWII
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1/6 "Otto Skorzeny", Haupsturmführer Italy 1943
Otto Skorzeny (June 12, 1908 – July 6, 1975) was an Obersturmbannführer in the German Waffen-SS during World War II. After fighting on the Eastern Front, he commanded a rescue mission that freed the deposed Italian dictator Benito Mussolini from captivity. Skorzeny was also the leader of Operation Greif, in which German soldiers were to infiltrate through enemy lines, using their opponents' uniforms and customs. At the end of the war, Skorzeny was part of the Werwolf guerrilla movement.
Although charged with breaching the 1907 Hague Convention in relation with Operation Greif, the Dachau Military Tribunal acquitted Skorzeny after the war. Skorzeny fled from his holding prison in 1948, first to France, and then to Franco's Spain. A German court denazified him in 1952.
Skorzeny in his childhood
Otto Skorzeny was born in Vienna into a middle-class Austrian family which had a long history of military service. In addition to his native German, he spoke excellent French and English. In his teens, Otto once complained to his father of the austere lifestyle that his family was suffering from by mentioning he had never tasted real butter in his life due to the depression that plagued Austria after its defeat in World War I. His father prophetically replied, "There is no harm in doing without things. It might even be good for you not to get used to a soft life." Thus his underprivileged upbringing helped make him the feared commando that he became. He was a noted fencer as a university student in Vienna. He engaged in thirteen personal combats. The tenth resulted in a wound that left a dramatic scar - known in academic fencing as a Schmiss (German for "smite") - on his cheek.
In 1931 Skorzeny joined the Austrian Nazi Party and soon became a member of the Nazi SA. A charismatic figure, Skorzeny played a minor role in the Anschluss on March 12, 1938, when he saved the Austrian President Wilhelm Miklas from being shot by Austrian Nazis.
The Eastern Front
After the 1939 invasion of Poland, Skorzeny, then working as a civil engineer, volunteered for service in the German Air Force (the Luftwaffe), but was turned down on grounds of age. He then joined Hitler's bodyguard regiment, the Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler as an officer-cadet.
In 1940, as an SS Untersturmführer, he impressed his superiors by designing ramps to load tanks on ships. He then fought in Holland, France, and the Balkans, where he achieved distinction by forcing a large Yugoslav force to surrender, following which he was promoted to Obersturmführer in the Waffen-SS.
On February 21, 1940, Skorzeny went to war in Russia with the 2nd SS Division Das Reich and fought in several battles on the Eastern Front. In October 1941 he was in charge of a "technical section" of the German forces during the battle for Moscow. His mission was to seize important buildings of the Communist Party, including the NKVD headquarter Lubyanka, the Central Telegraph and other high priority facilities, before they could be destroyed. The mission was cancelled as the German forces failed to capture the Soviet capital.
In December 1942 he was wounded in the back of the head by shrapnel and was awarded the Iron Cross for bravery under fire and sent to Vienna to recover. While in Vienna, he learned that Hitler had decided to form a new unit similar to the British Commandos; he quickly volunteered for this and was accepted.
Operations by Skorzeny
* Operation Oak (Unternehmen Eiche, September 1943) - The rescue of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini.
* Operation Long Jump - A proposed attempt to assassinate the "Big Three" (Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt) during the 1943 Tehran Conference.
* Operation Knight's Leap (Unternehmen Rösselsprung, May 1944) - An attempt to capture Josip Broz Tito alive.
* Operation Armored Fist (Unternehmen Panzerfaust a.k.a. Unternehmen Eisenfaust, October 1944) - The kidnapping of Miklós Horthy, Jr., son of Hungarian Regent, Admiral Miklós Horthy, to force Admiral Horthy to resign as head of state in favor of the pro-Nazi leader of the Arrow Cross Party, Ferenc Szálasi.
* Operation Griffin (Unternehmen Greif, December 1944) - A false flag operation to spread disinformation during the Battle of the Bulge.
* Werewolf SS - A planned Nazi underground resistance movement in Allied occupied Europe.
The liberation of Mussolini
After Skorzeny had recovered from his wounds, Ernst Kaltenbrunner recommended him as a possible leader of the "commando" forces German dictator Adolf Hitler wanted to create. Taking command of Sonder Lehrgang Oranienburg Skorzeny was authorised to form SS-Jäger-Bataillon 502 in June 1943. In July 1943, he was personally selected by Hitler from among six German Air Force (Luftwaffe) and German Army (Wehrmacht Heer) special agents to lead the operation to rescue Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, who had been overthrown and imprisoned by the Italian government.
Almost two months of cat-and-mouse followed as the Italians moved Mussolini from place to place to frustrate any rescuers. Information on Mussolini's location and its topographical features were finally secured by Herbert Kappler and aerial reconnaissance by Skorzeny himself. On September 12, Skorzeny took part in "Operation Oak" (Unternehmen Eiche), a daring glider-based assault on the Campo Imperatore Hotel at Gran Sasso. Mussolini was rescued without firing a single shot. Skorzeny escorted Mussolini to Rome and later to Berlin. The exploit earned Skorzeny fame, promotion to Major and the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross.
Mussolini created a new Fascist regime in northern Italy, the Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana).
Operation Long Jump
"Operation Long Jump" was the codename given to the unsuccessful plot to assassinate the "Big Three" (Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt) at the 1943 Tehran Conference was masterminded on Hitler's orders and headed by Ernst Kaltenbrunner. German intelligence had learned of the time and place of the conference in mid-October 1943, after breaking a US Navy code. Otto Skorzeny, as the man who always seemed to have luck on his side, was chosen by Kaltenbrunner to head the mission. Also involved was German agent Elyesa Bazna (better known under the codename "Cicero"), who transmitted key data from Ankara, Turkey concerning the conference.
However, Soviet intelligence quickly uncovered the plot and neutralized several of the important players. The first tip-off came from Soviet intelligence agent Nikolai Kuznetsov, under the alias of Wehrmacht Oberleutnant Paul Siebert, from Nazi-occupied Ukraine. Kuznetsov, a legendary Soviet spy, persuaded SS Sturmbannfuhrer Hans Ulrich von Ortel - who was described as "talkative" and "a drinker" to tell him about the operation while drunk.
In the autumn of 1943, fate thrust 19-year-old Gevork Vartanian into the centre of the operation. Vartanian was an intelligence agent and the son of a Soviet intelligence agent who worked in Iran by posing as a wealthy merchant. He received his first assignment and the cover name Amir in 1940. He was to form a group of spies. The seven he recruited were all about the same age – Armenians, a Lezghin and an Assyrian – and they communicated in Russian and Persian.
Vartanian's group located the party of six German radio operators who had dropped by parachute near Qum, 60 km (37 mi) from Tehran, and followed them to Tehran where the German spy network had provided a villa for them. They established that they were in contact with Berlin via radio and recorded their communications; when decoded, these revealed that the Germans planned to drop a second group of operatives led by Skorzeny for the actual assassination attempt on the "Big Three". Skorzeny had already visited Tehran to reconnoiter the situation and had been followed by Vartanian's group.
Following that, all the German transmissions were intercepted by Soviet and British intelligence. However, one of them transmitted a message to the effect that they were under surveillance and the plot was called off; Skorzeny himself considered the intelligence coming from Tehran was inadequate and did not believe the complex scheme could be accomplished.
Vartanian was awarded the Gold Star Medal of the Hero of the Soviet Union in 1984 for his wartime service. He was not declassified until 2000, when he and his wife Goar (who had been a member of his group), were awarded the Order of the Patriotic War, the Order of the Red Banner, and the Order of the Red Star.
On May 25, 1944, he was assigned to Operation Rösselsprung, a commando operation meant to capture Yugoslav Partisan leader Tito at his headquarters near Drvar. Hitler knew that Tito was receiving allied support and was aware that either British or American troops might land in Dalmatia with support from the communist NOVJ, the Partisan People's Liberation Army Of Yugoslavia. Killing or capturing Tito would not only have hindered this scenario, but also given a badly needed morale boost to the Axis forces in the Balkans. Skorzeny was involved in planning Rösselsprung and was supposed to command it. However, he argued against it after he visited Zagreb and discovered the operation had been compromised by the carelessness of German agents in NDH or the Independent State of Croatia. The Operation went ahead anyway and was a complete disaster. The first wave of paratroopers, following heavy bombardment by the Luftwaffe, jumped between Tito's hideout in a cave and the town of Drvar. They landed on open ground and many were promptly shot by members of the partisan HQ Escort Battalion, a unit numbering less than 100 soldiers. The second wave of paratroopers missed their target and landed several miles out of town. Tito was long gone by the time the paratroopers reached the cave. At the cave's exit a trail lead to the railway tracks where Tito boarded a train that took him safely to Jajce. In the meantime, the Partisan 1st Brigade, from the 6th Partisan Division Lika, arrived after a 12-mile (19 km) forced march and attacked the Waffen-SS paratroopers, inflicting heavy casualties.
The July 20 1944 plot against Hitler
On July 20, 1944, Skorzeny was in Berlin when an attempt on Hitler's life was made. Anti-Nazi German Army officers tried to seize control of Germany's main decision centers before Hitler recovered from his injuries. Skorzeny helped put down the rebellion, spending 36 hours in charge of the Wehrmacht's central command centre before being relieved.
Hungary and Operation Panzerfaust
In October 1944, Hitler sent Skorzeny to Hungary after receiving word that Hungary's Regent, Admiral Miklós Horthy, was secretly negotiating with the Red Army. The surrender of Hungary would have cut off the million German troops still fighting in the Balkan peninsula. Skorzeny, in a daring "snatch" codenamed Operation Panzerfaust (known as Operation Eisenfaust in Germany), kidnapped Horthy's son Miklós Horthy, Jr. and forced his father to resign as head of state. A pro-Nazi government under dictator Ferenc Szálasi was then installed in Hungary. In April 1945, after German and Hungarian forces had already been driven out of Hungary, Szálasi and his Arrow Cross Party-based forces continued the fight in Austria and Slovakia. The success of the operation earned Skorzeny promotion to Obersturmbannführer.
Operation Greif and Eisenhower
On October 21, Hitler, inspired by an American subterfuge which had put three captured German tanks still displaying German colours to devastating use at Aachen, summoned Skorzeny to Berlin and assigned him to lead a panzer brigade. As planned by Skorzeny, Operation Greif would involved about two dozen German soldiers, most of them in captured American Jeeps and dressed as American soldiers, who would penetrate American lines in the early hours of the Battle of the Bulge and cause disorder and confusion behind the Allied lines. A handful of his men were captured and spread a rumour that Skorzeny personally was leading a raid on Paris to kill or capture General Eisenhower, who was not amused by having to spend Christmas 1944 isolated for security reasons. Eisenhower retaliated by ordering an all-out manhunt for Skorzeny, with "Wanted" posters distributed throughout Allied-controlled territories featuring a detailed description and a photograph.
Skorzeny spent January and February 1945 commanding regular troops in the defence of the German provinces of East Prussia and Pomerania, as an acting major general. Fighting at Schwedt on the Oder River, he received orders to sabotage a bridge on the Rhine at Remagen. His frogmen tried but failed. For his actions in the East, primarily in the defence of Frankfurt, Hitler awarded him one of Germany's highest military honours, the Oak Leaves to the Knight's Cross.
Werewolves and surrender
With German defeat inevitable, Skorzeny played an instrumental role in selecting and training recruits for a stay-behind Nazi organisation, the Werwolfs, who would engage in guerrilla warfare against the occupying Allies. However, Skorzeny quickly realized that the Werwolfs were too few in number to become an effective fighting force and instead used them to set up the "ratlines", a secret "Underground railroad" that helped leading Nazis escape after Germany's surrender.
Besides organising the "ratlines," which would form the basis of the supposed ODESSA network after the war, Skorzeny had been employed since August 1944 by high-ranking Nazis and German industrialists to hide money and documents, some of which was buried in the mountains of Bavaria, and some shipped overseas.
Skorzeny surrendered on May 16, 1945, feeling that he could be useful to the Americans in the forthcoming Cold War. He emerged from the woods near Salzburg, Austria and surrendered to a lieutenant of the US 30th Infantry Regiment.
He was held as a prisoner of war for more than two years before being tried as a war criminal at the Dachau Trials in 1947 for allegedly violating the laws of war in the Battle of the Bulge. He and officers of the 150th Panzer brigade were charged with improperly using American uniforms to infiltrate American lines. All the defendants were acquitted, the military tribunal drawing a distinction between using enemy uniforms during combat and for other purposes including deception; it could not be shown that Skorzeny had given any orders to fight in US uniform. A surprise defence witness was F. F. E. Yeo-Thomas, GC, MC & Bar, Croix de Guerre, a former Allied SOE agent who testified that he had himself worn German uniforms behind enemy lines.
Skorzeny was detained in an internment camp at Darmstadt awaiting the decision of a denazification court. On July 27, 1948 he escaped from the camp with the help of three former SS officers dressed in US Military Police uniforms who entered the camp and claimed that they had been ordered to take Skorzeny to Nuremberg for a legal hearing. Skorzeny afterwards maintained that the US authorities had aided his escape, and had supplied the uniforms.
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